UN Security Council Reform Africa
by American Chronicle
In seven earlier articles, we referred to the three-day deliberations (on the impending UN reforms) that have been concluded on November 14th in the UN General Assembly. We briefly analyzed the historical developments that have produced an extraordinarily different international environment over the past 65 years, and we insisted on the importance of the values and principles declared in Charter of the UN for the forthcoming reform. We then called for a more representative UN Security Council able to reflect today's world, and pertinently address the overwhelming aspirations for Humanism, Democracy, Freedom, Justice, and respect of the Human Rights.
We subsequently advocated for Japan, India, Germany, Italy, Brazil, Mexico, and Turkey, as additional UN Security Council Permanent Members for historical, political, and economic reasons. Here are links to these articles: (http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/viewArticle.asp?articleID=43169 - http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/viewArticle.asp?articleID=43175 - http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/viewArticle.asp?articleID=43181 - http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/viewArticle.asp?articleID=43225 - http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/viewArticle.asp?articleID=43245 - http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/viewArticle.asp?articleID=43346 –
In the present article, we will focus on Africa, advocating for a more representative UN Security Council. We do suggest Veto Right for South Africa, as the most suitable representative of the Black Continent.
Africa: a Colonized, Underdeveloped and Undemocratic continent of Poverty
Selecting Turkey for UN SC permanent membership may be the best solution as far as the Islamic World is concerned, but this choice leaves the entire Black Continent out of the Veto Club. In terms of civilization, population, surface, human cultural heritage, trade and economy, the African continent cannot be excluded and alienated.
In its totality, the African continent (with ca. 950 million people) is comparable to India in terms of population.
Africa presently includes many of the world’s poorest nations; more notably, according to the United Nations' Human Development Report in 2003, the bottom 25 ranked nations (151st to 175th) were all African nations. Despite this reality, Africa if considered in its entirety equals almost Germany in terms of GDP, with more than US $ 2.4 trillion. This signifies that Africa is a very important part of our world's economic reality that we cannot afford either to ignore or to alienate.
As a matter of fact, and quite similarly with the Islamic World, Colonialism brought about economic exploitation of natural resources, social turmoil, and political oppression. Even worse, the traumatic experience of the colonial times left a very heavy burden, namely misrepresentative and counter-representatively separated countries that do not correspond to the local ethnic-linguistic, cultural, and religious realities. The end result was doubly negative:
1. Politically Imposed Dissemination where National Unity should be the natural, free choice of democratically consulted indigenous populations, and
2. Militarily Forced Unity where Free-will and Separation should be the natural, uninhibited choice of democratically consulted indigenous people.
Contrast with a Great, Millennia Long Past
Africa was home to many great empires. We definitely do not need to go back to the times of Hatshepsut, the first Queen in the History of the Mankind, Thutmosis II, Ramses II, Taharqa, Psammetichus, Nechao, Ptolemy II, Hannibal, Arkamaniqo of Meroe (Sudan, i.e. Ancient Ethiopia), Zacharias III of Makkuria (Africa's largest Christian state before the 19th century, in the area of today's Sudan), Ibn Tulun (Islamic ruler of Egypt) and many other African rulers to encounter large empires and great civilizations.
It would suffice to recall that in 1798 the Ottoman Empire was in possession of African territories totaling no less than 7 million km2!
Still today, Africa accommodates some of the world’s largest countries, namely Sudan (largest African territory), Algeria, and Democratic Republic of Congo. Only these three countries control a combined territory as large as Australia!
Many countries have surface larger than 1 million km2, which is colossal if considered within European context: Libya, Chad, Angola, Niger, Mali, Ethiopia, South Africa, Mauritania, and Egypt are all above the 1 m km2 threshold, whereas many other African countries control territories between 800000 km2 and 1 m km2 (Nigeria, Tanzania, Mozambique, Namibia).
In terms of population, only one African country, namely Nigeria (135 million people), is at the level of Russia and Japan. In addition, there are three other African nations with population larger than the threshold of 50 million, namely Egypt (80 m), Ethiopia (76 m), and the DR of Congo (65 m).
Fifth largest African nation in terms of population, South Africa (44 m) leads Tanzania (40 m), Sudan (40 m), Kenya (37 m), Morocco (34 m), and Algeria (32 m).
As we already said, when it comes to socio-economic and technological development, most of the African countries are undeservedly sunk deep into the bottomless pit of depression, underdevelopment, and insignificance.
So limited, oppressed, and unsuccessful the overall economic activity is that at the level of per capita GDP, we are often met with figures under US $1100! No less than 16 African countries are at this level: Benin, Djibouti, Zambia, Niger, Abyssinia, Eritrea, Liberia, Madagascar, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Burundi, DR of Congo, Somalia, Comoros, and Malawi.
In a dramatic comparison, Nigeria’s GDP is much lower than tiny (5.5 million people) Denmark’s (US $ 191 b and 202 b respectively); even Hungary, an Eastern European country (with just 10 m people) that only recently adhered to the EU, has GDP slightly lower than that of Nigeria, which is 13 times larger in terms of population.
Even more striking examples can be produced in order to illuminate the political failure and the economic disaster of the remaining colonial structures of Africa. Abyssinia, fallaciously re-baptized 'Ethiopia', has GDP slightly larger than that of Croatia (US $ 73 b and 60 b respectively); yet, Croatia, a small former Yugoslavian state with 4.5 m people, corresponds to just 6.5% of Abyssinia's population.
Similarly, Egypt’s GDP is hardly larger than that of (9 m people) Sweden (US $ 334 b and 290 b respectively). Finally, DR of Congo produces a little bit more (US $ 44.4 b) than tiny (2.3 million people) Croatia (US $ 36.5 b).
To reach a conclusion, the only sizeable African country that is economically significant is South Africa. It is certainly not a coincidence that South Africa eclipses all the other African countries, when it comes to Freedom, Justice, Multiculturalism, Democracy, Minority Rights, and - overall viewed - Human Rights.
South Africa vs. Nigeria, Egypt, 'Ethiopia', and DR of Congo
South Africa is the only sizeable African country with strong economy that fulfils all the criteria for the UN Security Council Reform that we reproduce here as well:
The Criteria for the UN Security Council Reform
A. Population – it cannot be under 40 million people.
B. Economic Power – it cannot be under US$ 400 b (GDP).
C. Democratic Administration,
D. Social and Technological Development,
E. Cultural and Religious Identity,
F. Surface – it cannot be under 100000 km2, and
G. Literacy – it cannot be under 60% of the total population of a country.
We will further focus on the possible contenders to clearly demonstrate that they certainly do not represent possible choices.
Nigeria is the right African counterpart of Pakistan!
With last April's elections significantly flawed (according to international monitors), Nigeria is a totalitarian realm of quasi-permanent, half-dormant civil war between fanatic Muslim (50% of the population) and Christian (40%) parties, Nigeria is slightly larger than Pakistan in terms of surface, whereas the Indus river valley country is slightly more populated (164 million vs. 135 million). Nigerian population growth (2.45%) promises a worse future than Pakistan’s (1.98%). Nevertheless, Nigeria is the world's 9th most populated country.